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RvnvRfv½v: wek¦‡cÖvcU I Zzjbvg~jK wPÎ

g~jZ Gwkqvi †`kmg~‡nB mviv we‡k¦i ¯Œ¨vc RvnvR¸‡jv fv½v nq| eZ©gv‡b evsjv‡`k, fviZ, cvwK¯—vb Ges Px‡bB AwaKvsk RvnvR KvUv n‡q _v‡K| GQvov Zzi¯‹, wf‡qZbvg Ges wdwjcvB‡bI mv¤cÖwZKKv‡j evwYwR¨Kfv‡e RvnvRfv½v Avi¤¢ nq| RvnvRfv½v wk‡íi HwZnvwmK cUf~wg we‡k­lY Ki‡j †`Lv hvq, †jŠnRvZ c`v‡_©i Pvwn`v, m¯—v kªg, evRvi, AbyK‚j cwi‡ek BZ¨vw`Dcv`vb Ges †hLv‡b Dcv`vb¸‡jvi mgš^q N‡U‡Q †mLv‡bB M‡o D‡V‡Q GB wkí| †`k¸‡jvi ivR‰bwZK, mvgvwRK, †fŠMwjK, Ges cÖkvmwbK wfbœZvi Kvi‡Y RvnvRfv½vi cwigvY Ges GB wk‡íi mvwe©K Ae¯’vi g‡a¨ wfbœZv i‡q‡Q| eZ©gvb cÖwZ‡e`‡b wewfbœ †`‡ki RvnvRfv½v wk‡íi Zzjbvg~jK welq wb‡q Av‡jvPbv Kiv n‡q‡Q| CTZIAS SHIPPINGP GROUP bvgK GKwU wkc‡eªwKs

vsjv‡`k:
evsjv‡`‡ki RvnvRfv½v wk‡íi hvÎv ïi“ nq g~jZ 1960 mv‡j| †mB mg‡q S‡oi Ke‡j c‡o cvK-fviZ hy‡× ¶wZMÖ¯— ÒGg wf Avj cvBbÓ bv‡gi GKwU RvnvR PÆMÖv‡gi mxZvKz‡Êi DcK‚jeZ©x GjvKvq AvU‡K c‡o| †Kvbfv‡eB GwU‡K cybivq mgy‡`ª fvmv‡bv m¤¢e nw”Q‡jv bv| g~jZ H RvnvRwU‡K ˆmK‡Z †U‡b G‡b LwÛZ Kivi gva¨‡g †MvovcËb n‡jI evwYwR¨Kfv‡e RvnvRfv½vïi“ ¯^vaxbZvi ci| mˇii `k‡KB evwYwR¨K e¨vs‡Ki mnvqZvq †K‡U wewµ Kivi D‡Ï‡k¨ GKwU-`ywU K‡i RvnvR Avg`vbx ïi“ nq| Avwki `k‡Ki †k‡li w`‡K GB A‡ji wkc‡eªwKs Bqv‡©Wi msL¨v 60-80 †Z DbœxZ nq| G‡Ki ci RvnvR µ‡q GB G‡mvwm‡qkb B mvwe©K f‚wgKv cvjb K‡i _v‡K| evsjv‡`‡k RvnvRfv½v wk‡íi AwaKvsk kªwgK †`‡ki g½v cxwoZ DËie‡½i AÂj n‡Z wb‡q Avbv nq| mvaviYZ Zv‡`i †K AMÖxg UvKv w`‡q wkc Bqv‡W© KvR Ki‡Z wb‡q Avmv nq| wkc Bqv‡W© Kv‡Ri aiY Ges SuzwK m¤ú‡K© bv Rvwb‡qB Kv‡R wb‡qvM Kiv nq| cy‡iv‡bv kªwgK‡`i KvR †`‡LB Zviv wkc Bqv©‡W KvR wk‡L| GLv‡b Zv‡`i Rb¨ †Kvb cÖwk¶‡Yi e¨e¯’v bvB| evsjv‡`‡ki wkc BqvW©¸jv‡Z kªwgK‡`i Rb¨ †Kvb BÝy‡iÝ e¨e¯’v bvB| wbnZ n‡j kªwgK‡`i cwievi‡K Dchy³ ¶wZc~iY †`qvi cÖeYZv Kg| Z‡e B`vwbs wkc BqvW© gvwjK‡`i g‡a¨ ¶wZc~iY †`qvi cÖeYZv m„wó n‡”Q|mxZvKz‡Êi wkc Bqv‡W© GjvKvq 15 wK:wg: Ry‡o †Kvb nvmcvZvj M‡o I‡V wb| m¤cÖwZ evsjv‡`k wkc‡eªKvm© G‡mvwm‡qkvb GKwU nvmvcvZvj ¯’vc‡bi Rb¨ RvqMv µq K‡i‡Q e‡j Rvbv †M‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k wkc BqvW© kªwgK‡`i wbivcËvi
Rb¨ kªwgK‡`i‡K †nj‡gU, eyU, †gvUv Kvco, Pkgv cÖf„wZ cÖ`v‡bi †Kvb wbqg bxwZ bvB| GQvov wkc Bqv‡W© cÖ‡ekvwaKvi gvwjK ev gvwjK‡`i msMVb K‡Vvi fv‡e wbqš¿Y K‡i d‡j mKj †eAvBwb Kg©KvÊ j¶KiviI my‡hvM Kg| evsjv‡`‡ki wkc Bqv‡W© †h mKj RvnvR KvUv nq Zvi AwaKvskB A‡qj U¨vsKvi|

fv½vi Rb¨ Avg`vbx Kiv RvnvR¸‡jv‡Z _v‡K Kv‡jv †Zj I wewfbœ ivmvqwbK `ªe¨| wKQz wKQz †ÿ‡Î Gme eR©¨ †d‡j †`qv nq mgy‡`ª| RvnvR KvUv‡Z wM‡q m„wó nq c~Ye¨envi Abyc‡hvMx †jvnvi¸ov| GB me c`v‡_©i †kl Mš—e¨ mgy`ª| d‡j kxc‡eªwKs GjvKvi mgy`ª e‡R©¨i Av¯—vKz‡o cwiYZ n‡q‡Q| evsjv‡`‡k Rvnv‡Ri eR©¨ I welv³ `ªe¨vw` e¨e¯’vcbvi Rb¨ †Kvb Av‡qvRb bvB| Gme GjvKvi mgy`ª DcK‚‡j gvQmn Ab¨vb¨ RjR Rx‡ei cwigvY w`b w`b n«vm cv‡”Q| kã`~lY GLvbKvi GjvKvi wbZ¨‰bgwËK e¨vcvi| RvnvRfv½v wkí n‡Z m„ó †jvnv I mxmvi AwZwgwn Wvó H A‡ji evZv‡m †f‡m †eovq Ges wbk¦v‡mimv‡_ AbeiZ gvbe‡`‡n cÖ‡ek K‡i| hLb †Kvb we‡ùviYRbxZ `~N©Ubv N‡U ZLb evZv‡m wewfbœ ¶wZKviK ivmvqwbK `ª‡e¨i cwigvY e„w× cvq| kªwgK‡`i g‡a¨ †KD †KD gvivZ¥Kfv‡e Amy¯’ n‡q c‡o| ¯’vbxq evwm›`v‡`i kix‡i bvbv Dcm©M †`Lv †`q|

fviZ:
fvi‡Zi RvnvRfv½v wk‡íi weKv‡ki aiY wfbœiKg| fvi‡Zi wkc‡ewKs BqvW©¸‡jv eZ©gv‡b ¸RivU cÖ‡`‡ki Gjvs bvgK GKwU DcK‚jxq A‡j Aew¯’Z| 1980 mv‡ji c~‡e©I fvi‡Zi RvnvRfv½v wkí g~jZ †QvU RvnvR Ges aŸsm cÖvß RvnvR KvUv‡ZB mxgve× wQ‡jv| GwU ZLb fvi‡Zi †ev‡¤^Õi `viLvbvq Aew¯’Z wQ‡jv| 1970 `k‡Ki Gi †k‡li w`‡K GB Lv‡Z A_© wewb‡qv‡Mi wm×vš— nq| 1978 mv‡j fviZ miKvi GB LvZ‡K wkí wn‡m‡e †NvlYv †`q| fviZ miKv‡ii w` †gUvj ¯Œ¨vc †UªW K‡c©v‡ikb (GgGmwUwm) we‡`k n‡Z Ae¨eüZ RvnvRfv½vi Rb¨ Avg`vbxi `vqxZ¡ Ges miKvi wkc‡eªwKs Dbœqb Znwej MVb K‡i| 1981 mv‡j miKvi wkc‡eªwKs Gi Rb¨ GKwU Dc‡hvMx ¯’vb †LuvRvi cÖwµqv ïiy K‡i| A‡bK †LuvRvLywRi ci mgy‡`ª †XD Gi NbZ¡, ˆmK‡Zi wekvjZvi Kvi‡Y Gjvs‡K mev©‡c¶v Dc‡hvMx ¯’vb wn‡m‡e we‡ePbv Kiv nq| 1983 mv‡j Gjvs-G cÖ_g RvnvR ÔGgwf †KvUv Z‡bRsÕ fv½vi Rb¨ Avg`vbx Kiv nq| 183 wU c-U Ges 15 wK:wg GjvKvi Ry‡o Aew¯’Z Gjvs Ges †mvwmqv, wkc BqvW© we‡k¦i me‡P‡q eo wkc BqvW© GjvKv wn‡m‡e MY¨ n‡q Avm‡Q|

eZ©gv‡b we‡k¦ RvnvRfv½v wk‡í fvi‡Zi Ae¯’vb cÖ_g| fviZ miKvi ¸RivU †gwiUvBg †evW© (wRGgwe) bv‡gi GKwU we‡kl cwil` MVb K‡i‡Q †hwU mKj RvnvRfv½v Kg©KvÊ cwiPvjbv K‡i _v‡K| GB †evW© †K `ywU `vwqZ¡ †`qv n‡q‡Q, GKwU n‡jv wkc‡eªwKs BqvW© Gi Rb¨ AeKvVv‡gvMZ Dbœqb Kiv Ges kªwgK‡`i Rb¨ Avevmb, M¨vm mieiv‡ni Rb¨ cvBc jvBb ¯’vcb| 1990 mv‡ji c~‡e© wRGgwe H RvnvR Avg`vbx‡Z cÖZ¨¶ f‚wgKv wQj ZLb †evW© wb‡RB RvnvR µq K‡i wkc‡eªKvi‡`i wbKU weµq Ki‡Zv| 90­Gi c‡i †evW© RvnvR µ‡q Avi cÖZ¨¶ f‚wgK iv‡L bv| GLb wkc‡eªKviiv wb‡RivB wek¦ evRv‡i cÖwZ‡hvwZvi gva¨‡g RvnvR µq K‡i _v‡K|
fvi‡Z 2003 Gi †k‡li w`K n‡Z kªwgK‡`i Rb¨ GKwU †Uªwbs Ges I‡qj‡dqvi
†m›Uvi MVb Kiv n‡q‡Q| GLv‡b kªwgK‡`i‡K wkc‡eªwKs Bqv‡W©i SuzwK GeswbivcËv m¤ú‡K© aviYv †`qv nq| GB †Uªwbs †m›Uv‡i wZb ai‡Yi †Uªwbs †`qv nq| GB mKj †Uªwbs Gi gva¨‡g kªwgKiv c~e©mZK©Zv †c‡q _v‡K| fvi‡Zi cÖvq mKj wkc Bqv‡W© kªwgK‡`i Rxeb exgv Kiv Av‡Q| Gi d‡j †h †Kvb `~N©Ubvi c‡i AvnZ ev wbnZ n‡j Zviv GKwU fv‡jv cwigv‡Yi ¶wZc~iY †c‡q _v‡K| kªwgK AvnZ n‡j wkc BqvW© gvwjK mKj wPwKrmv mn‡hvwMZv K‡i _v‡K| wbnZ n‡j kªwgK‡`i cwievi‡K 50 nvRvi iƒwc ¶wZc~iY †`qv nq| fvi‡Zi wkc BqvW©¸‡jv‡Z kªwgK‡`i‡K †nj‡gU, eyU, †gvUv Kvco, Pkgv cÖf„wZ e¨env‡ii Rb¨ wKQz wbqgbxwZ Av‡Q| GQvov fvi‡Zi mywcÖg‡KvU© wkc Bqv‡W© mvsevw`K, gvbevwaKvi Kgx©‡`i cÖ‡e‡ki Rb¨ GKwU i“j Rvwi K‡i‡Q|
Gjvs G kªwgK‡`i Rb¨ †nj_ Kv‡W©i e¨e¯’v i‡q‡Q, †hwUi gva¨‡g Zviv mn‡RB ¯^v¯’¨ †mev †c‡Z cv‡i| GQvov Gjvs-G wkc BqvW© GjvKvi cv‡kB K‡qKwU nvmcvZvj i‡q‡Q| MyRiv‡U fv½vi Rb¨ Avg`vbxK…Z Rvnv‡Ri eR©¨ I welv³ `ªe¨vw` e¨e¯’vcbvi Rb¨ GKwU we‡kl ai‡Yi BqvW© ˆZix Kiv n‡q‡Q| Rvnv‡Ri eR©¨¸‡jv GB Bqv‡W© wb‡q G‡b wekvj AvK„wZi M‡Z©i g‡a¨ cy‡uZ †djv nq| Gi d‡j mgy‡`ªi cvwb `~lY n‡Z i¶v cvq| ˆZjevnx RvnvR¸‡jv‡Z A‡c¶vK„Z AwaK welv³ eR©¨ _vKvq fvi‡Zi wkc Bqv‡W© I‡qj †UsKvi fv½v m¤ú~Y© wbwl×| Gjvs G fv½vi Rb ïaygvÎ hvÎxevnx RvnvR Avg`vbx Kiv nq| Gme KwU my‡hvM myweav evsjv‡`‡k cÖ‡qvM †Kvb e¨qmva¨ ev Kómva¨ e¨cvi bq, miKv‡ii mw`”Qv ev AwZ gybvdv AR©‡bi `„wófw½ cwieZ©b G‡¶‡Î h‡_ó| AwZ `ª“Z c`‡ÿc †`k I RvwZi Rb¨ g½jRbK n‡e KviY wkc‡eªwKs eÜ n‡j ¯—× n‡q hv‡e Dbœqb I wbg©vY Kg©KvÊ †jŠnRvZ `ª‡e¨i ¯^íZvq|

Pxb:
kª‡gi g~j¨ e„w× Ges cwi‡ek m‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y DbœZ wek¦ mˇii `k‡Ki kyi“‡Z wkc‡eªwKs Kvh©µg m¤ú~Y©fv‡e ¸wU‡q †d‡j| d‡j GB Kvh©µg ¯’bvšÍwiZ nq Gwkqvi †`k¸‡jv‡Z| G‡`i g‡a¨ evsjv‡`‡k Ges fvi‡Zi cvkvcvwk Px‡bI GB Kvh©µ‡gi e¨vcK cÖmvi N‡U| Px‡bi wkc BqvW©mg~n †MsWs cÖ‡`‡ki cv‡bqy kn‡i| Z‡e miKv‡ii cwi‡e‡ki m‡PZbZvi Kvi‡Y eZ©gv‡b Px‡bi wkc‡eªwKs Kvh©µg c~‡e©i g‡Zv Pv½v †bB| Px‡b wkc KvUv nq hvwš¿K c×wZ‡Z WªvB WwKs K‡i| 2000 mv‡j wMÖbwcm Px‡bi wkc BqvW©¸‡jv cwi`k©b K‡i Ges j¶¨ K‡i Pxb kªwgK‡`i avZz `~lY Ges Uw·K `~lY cÖwZ‡iva ¶gZv †Zgb DbœZ bv| GK M‡elYvq j¶¨ Kiv †M‡Q †h, cvj© Ges GqvsU&R b`x cyivZb Rvnv‡Ri cwiZ¨v³ eR©¨ I `~lY †_‡K gvivZ¥K `~wlZ| Gwkqvi Ab¨vb¨ wkc BqvW© kªwgK‡`i g‡Zv Px‡bI kªwgK‡`i ¯^v¯’¨MZ Ae¯’v LyeB Avk¼vRbK| GQvov Gm‡emUm, †Zj, wUwewU BZ¨vw` fv‡jvfv‡e cwi‡kvab Kiv nq bv| Px‡bi wkc BqvW©¸‡jv‡ZI kªwgK‡`i †eZ‡bi cwigvY Kg| cÖwZ gv‡m GKRb kªwgK me©wbgœ 33 †_‡K m‡e©v”P 78 BDGm Wjv‡ii mgcwigvY A_© †c‡q _v‡K| M¨vm we‡ùvi‡Y, Pvcv c‡o wKsev Dci n‡Z c‡o wM‡q kªwgK `~N©Ubvq cwZZ nIqvi NUbv I m¤¢vebv i‡q‡Q| eZ©gv‡b Px‡bi wkc‡eªwKs Bqv‡W©i AwaKvskB wbw¯Œq| Z‡e m¤cÖwZ Pxb cyYivq cy‡iv`‡g wkc‡eªwKs Kvh©µg ïi“ Kivi B”Qv e¨³ K‡i‡Q|

cvwK¯—vb
cvwK¯—vb eZ©gvb we‡k¦ RvnvRfv½v wk‡í PZz_© ¯’v‡bi AwaKvix| cvwK¯—v‡bi mgy`ª DcK‚jeZx© Mv`vbx A‡j wkc BqvW©¸‡jv Aew¯’Z| cvwK¯—v‡bi wkc Bqv‡W©i cwi‡ek cwiw¯’wZi m‡½ evsjv‡`‡ki wkc Bqv‡W©i cwi‡ek cwiw¯’wZi A‡bK mv`„k¨ Av‡Q| cvwK¯—vb wkc Bqv‡W©i eo ˆewkó n‡jv fv½vi Rb¨ Avbv nq
†Z‡ji U¨vsKvi| cvwK¯—v‡bi Mv`vbx AÂj eo eo U¨vsKvi fv½vq we‡klfv‡ecvi`kx©| 1999 mvj ch©š— GB †`k wkc‡eªwKs wk‡í Z…Zxq Ae¯’v‡b wQ‡jv, eZ©gv‡b PZz_© Ae¯’v‡b i‡q‡Q|

Zzi¯‹:
Zzi¯‹ eZ©gv‡b RvnvRfvOv wk‡í Ab¨Zg ¸i“Z¡c~Y© †`k| BRwgi †_‡K 50 wK:wg: Dˇi f~ga¨ mvM‡ii DcK‚‡j GwjRv bvgK ¯’v‡b RvnvRfv½v nq| wKš‘ OECD †`k nIqv m‡Ë¡I GLv‡b wkc BqvW©¸‡jv I kªwgK‡`i Ae¯’v Gwkqvi †`k¸‡jvi g‡ZvB| GwjRv †Z RvnvRfv½v ïi“ nq 70 `k‡K wKš‘AvbyôvwbKfv‡e 1984 †Z RvnvRfv½vi miKvwi AbygwZ jvf K‡i| Zzi¯‹ miKvi †Kvb cÖKvi †bvsiv RvnvRv Avg`vwb Ki‡Z †`q bv (wMÖb wcm 2002)|wKQz wKQy Zdvr _vK‡jI we‡k¦i RvnvRfv½v wkímg~‡ni GKwU we‡kl wgj n‡”Q GB Kvh©µg †_‡K †`k¸‡jvi †jŠn ˆZixi KvPuvgv‡ji mieivn nq| GQvov me‡P‡q eo mv`„k¨ n‡jv RvnvRfv½v wk‡íi Kvi‡Y cwi‡ek wech©q, wbivcËv

wbwðZ bv nIqv Ges wkc Bqv‡W© mvwe©K gvbevwaKvi j•Nb| GB wZbwU welq we‡k¦ me¸‡jv †`‡ki wkc‡eªwKs Bqv‡W© Kg †ewk weivRgvb| Dc‡iv³ Av‡jvPbvi gva¨g GKwU welq ¯úó nq †h fviZ, Pxb Ges Zzi‡¯‹ wkc BqvW© Dbœq‡b Ges mvwe©K cwiPvjbvq miKv‡ii wbR¯^ wKQz D‡`¨vM ev¯ÍevwqZ n‡q‡Q| wKš‘ evsjv‡`‡k Zv nq wb Ges cÖYxZ nqwb wkc‡eªwKs Gi Rb¨ †Kvb bxwZgvjv| GB Kvi‡Y-M¨vm we‡ùviYRwbZ `~N©Ubvq kªwgK nZvnZ nIqv, kªg AwaKvi j•Nb, Z¡wir wPwKrmv Ges cÖ‡qvRbxq my‡hvM-myweavi Afve, wbivcËvi Afve cÖf„wZ GB wk‡íi wbZ¨‰bgwËK e¨vcvi| evsjv‡`k miKv‡ii kªg I Kg©ms¯’vb gš¿vYvjq BDGbwWwcÕi A_©vq‡b AvBGjIÕi mn‡hvwMZvq kªwgK‡`i Kv‡Ri †¶‡Î wbivcËv wbwðZKi‡Yi Rb¨ GKwU cÖKí nv‡Z wb‡q‡Q| hvi bvg Ô†md GÛ Bbfvqib †d«Ûwj wkc wimvBwK¬s cÖ‡R±Õ GB cÖK‡íi †Kvb cÖfve AvRI ch©š— wkc‡eªwKs Kvh©µ‡gi Dci GL‡bv c‡o wb| Aciw`‡K wkc‡eªwKs Gi mKj mgm¨v I m¤¢vebv¸‡jv we‡ePbvq †i‡L mgvR Dbœqb ms¯’v Bcmv GB wkí m¤ú‡K© GKwU my¯úó I bxwZgvjv cÖYq‡Y miKv‡ii `„wó AvKl©Y Ges RbMY‡K GB wk‡íi m¤¢vebv¸‡jv wb‡q m‡PZb Ki‡Z D‡`¨vMx nq| eZ©gv‡b Bcmvi Kvh©µ‡gi j¶¨ n‡jv, wkc‡eªwKs wk‡íi Rb¨ GKwU mywbw`©ó bxwZgvjv cÖYq‡bi j‡¶¨ bxwZ wba©viK‡`i cÖfvweZ Kiv, †h bxwZgvjvi Øviv kªwgK‡`i AwaKvi wbwðZ n‡e Ges GKwU my›`i Kg©cwi‡ek weivR Ki‡e|